The sector of making confectionaries (ειδη περιπτερου ), like lots of other industries, has actually altered significantly over the last few years. Although the standard formulas have actually undergone minor adjustments, the manufacturing technologies have actually changed dramatically (this uses specifically to the techniques of creating little products and also ceramic tiles, as well as their product packaging).
At the start of this chapter, it appears appropriate to state just these changes, however more on those later related to particular dishes.
Different teams of confectionery products call for certain molding approaches so that they can be wrapped as well as packaged in the most suitable method up for sale. Most likely one of the most successful advancement was the bread bar. These bars enable you to make use of affordable techniques of production, packaging as well as display screen at the point of sale.
At the same time, there were noticeable renovations in the packaging – both in the products made use of and also in the securing techniques. A lot of the bars in order to guarantee lengthy service life, to protect versus insect damages as well as contamination call for safety packaging. We take into consideration these factors in different chapters.
We have already considered the manufacturing of delicious chocolate, and also therefore it is clear that delicious chocolate and also complicated glazes have a predominantly fatty basis, their moisture content is really low (typically less than 1%), and the active ingredients are not in liquid remedy.
In numerous confectionery procedures, the dissolving capability of sugar (sucrose) is taken into consideration individually or in combination with other sugars, such as glucose syrup (corn syrup) and also invert sugar. There are 2 primary teams of sugar confectionery items: a) items in which sugar is totally dissolved, and b) items in which sugar is partially liquified, as well as partially existing in the form of tiny strong crystals suspended in solution. These items might be changed with other ingredients (as an example, milk as well as fats). The initial team includes hard candy, difficult and also soft milk sugary foods, toffee and also most jelly sweets. The second team includes items such as fudge, fudge (fudge), marshmallows and also nougat with a pronounced fine-crystalline framework.
Overview confectionery manufacturing modern technologies
Below we will certainly see that all the variety of structures gotten is a result of using various technological processes and formulas, every one of which need unique methods for the development of specific items. Here we look at basic innovation concerns, and also see their details usages in other sections of this publication.
Smearing as well as cutting
The maker is outfitted with cooled down rolls, which allow you to feed the product directly from the device, where it is prepared, to the plate developing gadgets. After molding and lamination, the plates are fed to a cooling tool, and then to standard cutting gadgets and spreaders. After that the items are glazed.
Фирма SOLLICH GmbH, г. Бад-Зальцуфлен, Германия.
This is probably the oldest approach of creating bars (ceramic tiles) as well as specific products from plastic items such as fudge, nougat as well as numerous pastes. A confectionery product in an ideal plastic state, established by its moisture, fat web content or temperature, is first fed to the rolls to acquire a plate of the called for thickness. This plate is then fed to reducing gadgets to produce large strips, which are after that cut into narrow ceramic tiles or bars. Currently, the warm item is fed to cooled down rolls, allowing to get multilayer plates. Home plates are continuously cut into strips that pass through the (” spreading out maker)” spreader “, after which the strips are cut into bars or small pieces. An example of such a process is the Sollich Conjug system (Fig. 19.1).
Casting or otsadka
This technique is used for the production of candies, fondant and jelly sweets, some types of milk sweets and also fudge, marshmallows and also other products that can be acquired in fluid form.
Some items in liquid kind might be molded at a temperature level of concerning 150 ° C in a steel mold whose surface area is covered with a “lube”.
Pomadnye, želejnye candy, maršmellou.
These products are generally cast right into cells formed in starch (see below the area “Fondant shells”). A much more current development is the automated precipitation as well as extraction of fondant coverings as well as some other confectionery items using metal molds (Cadbury-Baker Perkins), as well as the rainfall of sugar and toffee into silicone molds (Baker Perkins). Silicone is a non-tacky material that has one-of-a-kind homes as well as is resistant to reasonably heats, common for the manufacturing of caramel confectionery.
This method applies virtually specifically to candy caramel and some sorts of toffee. The common flavored sweets, desserts with a filler and also “toffee” are made.
The manufacturing principle is to cool down the made syrup under regulated conditions up until it reaches a pliable state. In this state, the product is changed into a kind of rope, fed to the stamps, on which the completed products (normally of a specific shape or with a pattern) are obtained from it. The resulting products are promptly sent out to the cooling cabinet and also covering equipment.
To get some kinds of sugar and chewy sweets, a variant of this method is made use of, in which the harness acquired in a comparable method is fed to a cutting-wrapping maker, where with the help of high-speed circular blades, small items are cut from it that pertained to the covering equipment.
Extrusion and also molding bars.
The concept of extrusion, carried out in the manufacturing of numerous non-food products, has actually been successfully applied in the confectionery sector. The application of this procedure to the manufacturing of various items– from soft products such as marshmallows and fondant desserts to extremely plastic nougat and also milk delicious chocolates– is defined in  In this situation, the product based on extrusion is fed to the electrical outlet nozzles with the help of numerous rolls or augers. The nozzle opening account establishes the form of the end product, and several extruders are equipped with a variety of nozzles that create harnesses that can be cut into bars or small items. In fig. 19.2 shows different rolls for extruders, and fig. 19.3 is a Wemer-Lehara extruder cross section with a device for cutting off tiny items from the hairs. In fig. 19.4 reveals the layout of the Weisert-Loser extruder for the extrusion of chewing periodontal as well as eating sweet.
The style of the NID bar extruder is slightly various. The feeding is performed by grooved rollers in the same way as in various other extruders, however the material to be developed is fed to a 2nd profile roller. The profiled surface of the roll is covered with fluoroplastic to make sure simple splitting up of the product and also is made use of to shape benches right into the needed form. The pins aid get rid of the harnesses onto the conveyor belt.
It is feasible to make multi-layer bars in which two layers are squeezed out at the same time, or bars with a body from an additional confectionery product. Extrusion works well with various other continuous manufacturing as well as glazing techniques.
When extrusion confectionery should observe specific precautions.
Temperature. The extrusion temperature level is of fundamental relevance, specifically in the case of milk candy and nougat, the uniformity of which is extremely based on temperature. Tiny fluctuations in temperature level can cause huge modifications in extrusion stress. For soft milk sugary foods, a temperature level of 35 to 38 ° C is normally made use of, but much relies on the sort of item, and also the exact temperature.
Excursion conditions must be identified empirically. Reduced temperature levels and high pressures cause knockout of extruder safety plugs.
Splitting up of fat … If fat separates throughout extrusion, this suggests bad emulsification. Improvement is attained when an emulsifier (eg lecithin or glyceryl monostearate) is consisted of in the solution.
Damage after extrusion … After extrusion, some products shed their form, as well as the strip, which is practically cylindrical in cross-section, after a short time on the strip may end up being noticeably flatter. This is due to a number of reasons:.
expensive a moisture content;.
It was not emulsified fat and may be also soft;.
the protein of any kind of milk ingredient is not correctly dispersed;.
in fudge or pastes, no crystalline structure has actually formed or has actually been ruined by extreme mixing after crystal formation. This defect can be really subtle, and also in constant fudge manufacturing, its look depends upon the minute the taking shape lipstick is included before extrusion. It is feasible to determine the optimum conditions for a particular equipment just experimentally. Companies specializing in the manufacturing of extrusion tools have actually performed a large amount of study in the style of machines for the extrusion of confectionery products of various uniformities. For some products – such as gummies as well as chewing gum – the roll extruder is paving the way to a multi-cavity screw (worm) extruder. These modern technologies are explained in various other sections of the book.
The principle of panning is currently explained in Chapter 5. There are 2 types of sugar rolling – difficult as well as loosened. With difficult knurling, successive layers of powdered sugar and syrup are accumulated on the desired body (for example, nuts) and dried out with warm air passing between the used layers. Loose knurling is carried out in a similar method, yet making use of cold innovation. Soft shells are used (as an example, pasta, jelly, soft milk loading), and also the finish is made of sugar (or sugar) syrup and also powdered sugar. After reaching the preferred dimension as well as weight of the coating, the candies are partly dried and also covered with glaze. The process is completely mechanized, including loading and discharging the tanks, automatic splashing of syrups (or chocolate), as well as control of drying or cooling air to the storage tanks.
Confectionery lipstick made from sugar, sugar or corn syrup as well as invert sugar is typically signified in English by the word “creme” (lotion), yet some typical items make use of the alternative “lotion”, as well as in various nations it is called in a different way.
The fondant is prepared by dissolving sugar as well as glucose syrup (or invert sugar) in water and focusing by steaming to a solution having concerning 88% DM. At ambient temperature level, this remedy is supersaturated with sugar and unsteady, and also if it is swiftly mixed and cooled down, after that the excess sugar befalls of the option in the form of tiny crystals. Therefore, the fondant mass has a strong stage of sugar crystals put on hold in a liquid phase containing a saturated solution of “sugars”.
Without blending and also cooling large crystals are created. Beating in itself offers unsuitable outcomes, given that a huge amount of latent heat of crystallization is launched. If the whipped syrup is left hot, condensation slows down and also succeeding slow air conditioning causes the formation of big crystals. Fondant of high quality ought to be soft in uniformity.
At first, lipstick was prepared using just sugar, which was liquified in water as well as concentrated by steaming to concerning the level of 88-90% ST. Because the solubility of sugar at regular temperatures is only 67%, the syrup with a focus of 90% is very unstable as well as crystallizes upon rapid cooling, “giving” huge crystals.
To conquer this disadvantage, an additive was made use of that caused the inversion of a part of the sugar as well as increased the total solubility – this made it possible to whip the syrup into a fondant mass. Citric or tartaric acids or, more ideally, tartar (tartaric acid) are utilized as such additives. The development of invert sugar from sugar is gone over in an additional phase, however right here we just keep in mind that such ingredients disintegrate part of the sugar (sucrose), which is chemically a disaccharide, right into two monosaccharides, dextrose (glucose) and fructose. Fructose is a lot more soluble (about 80% at 20 ° C) than sucrose, as well as its presence with dextrose permits the concentrated syrup to be whipped into a lipstick.
This approach of application of the additive is very unreliable, because the quantity of invert sugar developed differs substantially depending upon the purity of the sugar, the boiling time as well as the solidity of the water made use of. Finest results are acquired by adding to the sugar syrup a certain quantity of invert sugar, ready independently.
Lipstick, made from sugar and invert sugar, has a granular structure and is extremely sweet in preference (it is seldom used in contemporary confectionery production). Sugar (corn) syrup has changed invert sugar in lipstick solutions; it is much less wonderful, and the existence of intricate carbohydrates regulates the development of crystals and provides an extra thick lipstick, which does not have a loosened (brittle) appearance.